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37 The way to avoid the ontological commitment, 34 says Quine, has been based on holding the synthetic-analytic distinction, as if there were cases of statements whose truth depends solely on language: but this is not possible. From the empiricist point of view, the way to understand the truth of statements is to consider that it depends partly on a linguistic component and partly on a factual one. In his words, ‘in the extreme case that the only thing that matters is the component language, the statement is analytic’, 35 and this is the case with ‘physical objects exist’ and ‘classes exist’ when analyzed internally without semantic ascent. 36

38 In short, both Quine and Carnap could agree that to admit a type of entities is to decide to quantify variables that take such entities as values. 37 In Carnap’s opinion, however, this has never been a factual question, but rather the choice of a linguistic framework or of an appropriate conceptual scheme. From Quine’s point of view, instead, distinguishing the ontological question – about what there is Yohji Black Stitch Coat Yohji Yamamoto Online Store 2QaL2rzf
– from about the convenience of accepting a linguistic framework, is a dogma: the distinction must rather be understood as a matter of degree along a continuum. 39

39 Given this philosophical frame, the problem that the reification of norms generates is ultimately as follows. We need to distinguish between norms and norm-formulations because the same formulation can express different norms, and the same norm can be formulated in different ways. If the norm is not the sentence, text or formulation that expresses it, it will be something else, and that will depend on the concept of norm in place. If we assume Carnap’s semantic model, once we determine intensionally the predicate “norm”, we will need to specify what integrates the corresponding class, but it would be useless to merely say that the class of norms contains norms. When asked to give instances of norms, we have no choice but to offer normative formulations. However, normative formulations are not norms. By keeping the distinction between the expression (norm-formulation) and the expressed (norm) – whatever belongs to the extension of the predicate “norm” – we are lead to an infinite regress. To avoid this result, the concept of norm must be modified so as to norms could be not linguistically formulated, and consequently grasped through some (bizarre) methods. Actually, the occurrence of this infinite regress is another version of the philosophical problem of rule-following, 40 and the reason why that does not occur in extensional cases is that a clear difference between the identification criteria and individuation criteria is in place. Burberry Prorsum Long Sleeve Knit Top Store Cheap Price Cheap Sale Professional Outlet Eastbay Buy Cheap Comfortable 4T4ml1lDKw
Notice that very often we talk about the identity of objects as provided by definitional criteria for the use of words, but epistemically there is a huge difference between offering a criterion of identification of a type of object and to offer a criterion of individuation of one of those objects among the others of the same type.

40 If we try to use Carnap’s method regarding the predicates “norm” and “norm-formulation” an obvious starting point is to accept that they are neither extensionally nor intensionally equivalent. We can try some semantic substitutions so as not to limit ourselves to consider that the intension of the predicate “norm”is the property of being a norm , that is, we can stipulate some definitions.

Ingrid Lunden @ingridlunden /

A week after PayPal led a $50 million round in the cross-border payment specialist PPRO, one of its big competitors in the developing world has announced an acquisition of its own in the same space. — the payments division of Naspers that is sometimes described as the PayPal of the developing world — has acquired , a startup based out of Israel that provides an API to merchants that lets them accept a variety of payments depending on the market.

The two had already been working together — specifically to provide PayU payment options to merchants in markets where PayU is active — and the plan will be to integrate the services further to enable PayU to step deeper into the cross-border payment services space, potentially even by enabling the integration of the payment methods of competitors as part of the mix of payment options.

“In the choice between building a closed walled garden and open platform, we decided to go with the second model,” PayU’s CEO Laurent le Moal said in an interview. “The reality is that you need to be neutral and work with everyone.”

PayU will also invest in adding further features to the Zooz platform, such as fraud management (which you could argue is For Sale For Sale Christopher Raeburn Hooded ZipUp Jacket Visa Payment Cheap Explore GxBm1PQn4H
), real-time reporting and smart routing.

Zooz’s whole team of 70 will be joining, including co-founders Oren Levy (CEO) and Ronen Morecki (CTO), who will respectively take senior roles at PayU as business development with larger merchants, and CTO of innovation.

Terms of the deal have not been disclosed, but that PayU has said that this deal brings its total spend on acquisitions and investments to about $350 million to date. That includes acquiring CitrusPay for $130 million , investing €100 million (between $120 million and $130 million) in Kreditech and several other investments . Doing the math, this potentially puts this deal at a range of between $50 million and $100 million.

was founded in 2010 and had raised around $33 million , from investors that includeTarget Global Ventures, Fang Fund,iAngels, Kreos Capital and existing investorsBlumberg Capital,lool ventures,Rhodium, Claltech (Access Industries’ Israeli tech vehicle),XSeed Capital,CampOne Venturesand angel investor Eilon Tirosh.

Similar to PPRO, the company in which PayPal invested earlier this month, Zooz’s service addresses the widespread fragmentation that exists in payments globally.While credit cards are very much the norm in the US, globally they account for just under 20 percent of all e-commerce transactions, with consumers and businesses in different geographies developing their own localised payment methods and preferences. For example, cash on delivery or deposited with convenience stores , or DL1961 MidRise Distressed Jeans Discount Original New Shop For Shop For Cheap Price 2018 Cheap Sale MAEm5Aj
also play big roles.

This can be a problem for a merchant that is based in one country but interested in selling to people in another — an opportunity estimated to be worth $994 billion globally — if it doesn’t accept whatever the local payment method happens to be. Zooz addresses this by providing an API to merchants that gives them the option of a number of payment providing companies and methods so that they can enable the most popular variety of payment options to buyers depending on the market.

It will be worth watching whether payment companies will continue to be happy integrating with Zooz after its sale to PayU is complete. The fact that Zooz already integrates with different payment options, and itself is not a payment services provider, was one reason why PayU was interested in it.

At a time when there are multiple options for payment methods, including PayU itself, there is potentially an opportunity to be able to make revenues by trying to play in as many of those transactions as possible. Notably,PayUalready lets people integrate some 250 methods into its own wallet, and it says it’s the leading online payment service provider in 16 markets out of the 17 in which it is active..

Zooz potentially will be boosting that footprint with more than just a platform that enables multiple payment options, but the transaction data and analytics that come with those transactions, which can become useful for other services in other parts of the business.

“The unique contribution we bring toPayUis an advanced technological layer which not only helps merchants worldwide to upscale their operations and provide a better customer experience, but also offers analytics and optimization capabilities that equip them with unprecedented insights,” noted Levy, Zooz’s CEO.

Image Credits: PM Images / Getty Images

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